History Documentary

London England a cosmopolitan city home to over 7 million people traffic congestion has long been a problem in the metropolis 150 years ago London needed a solution to its transport problems the solution was to give the world its first underground railway system the history of the London Underground next on modern models rush hour at Kings Cross station one of central London's busiest underground stations six different tube lines meet here and it also serves a major railroad station with 67 million passengers passing through each year few realized the role it played in giving London its underground the first steam railways had begun in 1825 and 25 years later Kings Cross was a terminus for steam trains arriving in London but the railroads were not permitted to expand any further into the capital this meant there were 750 thousand workers who arrived at the railroads each day then had to find a way to get to work in the heart of the city this huge burden of traffic inevitably led to gridlock the 1850s was one of the world's largest cities it was a massively growing industrial city and a port they've been the hub of the start of the British Empire interestingly enough it was a very dense and crowded city it was still largely built on its medieval Street pattern and it meant that people basically jostle together people lived very close to their work and it was a very crowded city full of cobbled streets gas lights and horse-drawn vehicles 150 years ago London was grinding to a halt and it needed an ambitious solution to link the main railroad stations to the city centre there was only one way to go and that was underground it's important to remember that for most people the thoughts of actually going underground and traveling at speed underground was was actually a very novel concept many Victorian writers or doom and destruction to people actually traveled on underground railways newspapers such as The Times actually ran quite a fierce campaign against the railway saying that even if it worked technically it would never pay because people would never use it they were speculating about underground passages soaked with sewage drippings and infested by rats going underground was the vision of one man Charles Pearson he persuaded Londoners that they needed a transport network beneath the streets he knew that people could get in and out of the city easily they could live further away and the slums in London would become a thing of the past Charles Pearson was a lawyer associated with the city of London and he was the person who really first pressed for the building of the Metropolitan Railway which was the world's first underground steam railway and Pearson basically came up with the idea of digging a trench down the middle of the road of roofing it over and running his railway in the bottom of the trench the Metropolitan Railway company broke ground in 1860 the building method used was called cut and cover and was a very expensive engineering project it involved digging tunnels which were over 20 foot wide laying two tracks side-by-side and then breaking these over to replace the road this project took three years to complete and caused havoc to homes and businesses the new tunnels were very shallow and ran only feet below the road surface an example of this can still be seen in the Notting Hill district of London there are two dummy houses numbers 23 and 24 Leinster Gardens which are identical to all the other houses in the street except for one thing their frontage is merely a wall five foot thick complete with painted windows and front doors they were built to fill the gap left in the row of houses when the line was built through the street the Metropolitan line opened in January 1863 and it basically connected the three major rail terminals at Paddington and Euston and at Kings Cross with the center of the city it found it was not conceived as a steam railway the initial suggestion by the Metropolitan railway engineer John Fowler had been to have the new underground railway running on compressed air the idea was the trains would be blown through tunnels and sucked back by air generated in great compressors at each end of the line but the major flaw in this system was that the compressed air leaked continuously through the tunnel joints with the failure of the system the Metropolitan Railway was forced to borrow steam locomotives and rolling stock from the Great Western Railway in order to start its service although it's just a quaint tourist attraction today it was a revolutionary idea and an immediate success it carried 40,000 passengers on its first day the timetable ran between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. with the train every 15 minutes the time for the 3 and 3/4 mile journey from Paddington to Farrington was 18 minutes stopping at all stations not much slower than the journey time today this newly built railway also had one oddity when it started when the Metropolitan Railway was first opened it had been constructed with both seven-foot gauge which was Brunel's Great Western Railway broad-gauge because it meant to end on with the Great Western Railway at the Paddington end and it had a third rail added which also created a four foot eight and a half inch gauge track but Stephenson gauged the gauge is the distance between the two running tracks this odd twin gauge arrangement ended when the two companies the Metropolitan Railway and the Great Western fell out with each other the Metropolitan went back to using Stevenson's gauge and this is still used by most railways today without the locomotives from the Great Western Railway the Metropolitan was forced into supplying their own rolling stock and for this they turned to the engineering company Bayer peacock the engine was a for for Oh Hank engine for for oh is that weed arrangement also used on the standard American engines at the time and it had fairly large driving wheels as a passenger engine at the time walked out in a very very handsome Beast very successful use throughout the whole 40 year period of steam only the engines weighed about 46 tons in running order they could carry approximately 1,000 gallons of water in their side tanks and the coupled driving wheels were five feet nine inches in diameter driven by two seventeen inch cylinders these are the original coaches which were used in London in the nineteenth century they have been carefully restored by a railway Preservation Society and each year they are exhibited for enthusiasts to see the dreadnoughts as these carriages were known were divided according to class the fares charged passengers on the Metropolitan Railway would have been according to the class they traveled in first class would have been used by topper city people traveling to their offices from their fashionable West London homes second class would have been used probably by the middle level of management's clark's and so on and third class anybody else who it was trouble and they would have travelled fairly uncomfortably in very cramped conditions on wooden boards the success of the Metropolitan encouraged other companies to start up and in 1874 London's second underground railway began running along the Thames embankment this was the Metropolitan and district railway by 1884 a complete circular Underground Railroad had been constructed as a joint venture by the Metropolitan and the district railways they called it the Circle Line and it's still in use today carrying passengers in its shallow tunnels just feet beneath Big Ben and the Tower of London but the new century would bring a new technology the use of steam locomotives on underground railways particularly Metropolitan Railway and on the district railway and some others became increasingly problematic as time went on the intensity of the service increased the intervals between the trains shortened and passengers were increasingly aggravated by the terrible pollution conditions which existed then there at the same time there were technological and advances which were occurring in America for example and in Germany particularly in electric traction with electrification the Underground was able to expand however the extremely disruptive cut and cover method no longer seemed an option for building the railways London couldn't cope with the chaos to its roads and so a new type of underground construction was needed this was going to take the builders deep into the London clay this is a standard London Underground running tunnel manufactured out of cast-iron lining rings and this slightly larger section of tunnel that we're standing in is called a shield chamber this is where the grated shield the device used to help build London's underground railways was constructed and then dismantled the South African engineer called James Henry great head invented a thing called a tunneling shield it was a kind of iron cylinder with a wall in which miners could actually work in safety and on the soft ground the earth would be dug out in front of the tunnelling shield I went a hole large enough the device could be pushed forward the tunnel lining could then be erected behind the shield to vault the ground up and then the process repeated the great head tunneling shield allowed the London Underground to expand into a deep level railway network the shield was the single most important engineering invention used to create the underground London at the end of the 19th century was filled with exciting transport innovations permission had been granted to numerous railroad companies who were proposing deep level underground routes but the City and South London railway was the first to make history in 1890 it became the first electric underground railroad in the world the decision to actually use electric traction was a really ambitious thing to do at the time because most electric traction systems that were in use were tramways getting the electrical equipment small enough to actually run in a tunnel and powerful enough to move these quite large trains was a big challenge the only way they could do it was to put all the electrical equipment into a small locomotive the power station for the line was down at Stockwell the problems they had were that the distribution of electricity from the power station up and down the line was not very good so as the locomotives got further and further away from the power station and started to approach the station in the city up at King William Street they often found that they were completely underpowered and as the trains struggled to go up and down the hills occasionally they would grind to a halt completely and all the lights would go out leaving the passengers stranded in darkness the trains had technical problems and their carriages offered little passenger comfort they were dubbed the sardine Box Railway or padded cell because of their claustrophobic design but the city and South London railway proved that electricity was the only way forward for the Underground another electric power tube company began operating in 1900 the central London railway was opened by Queen Victoria's son the Prince of Wales the line was built entirely in tunnels ten feet in diameter and since it ran across central London from east to west there was never much fear that it would fail from lack of passengers today the line is simply known as the central line and served stations along its route including Oxford Circus Bond Street and Hoban the central London railway was immediately popular with the traveling public over 14 million passengers were carried by the end of the first year the system was popular because it adopted an American idea of a flat rate fare it also looked across the Atlantic for its new technology the original central London electric locomotives were what they were called camelbacks because they had a cab in the middle and two sloping bonnets on either side which were built in America by the General Electric Company they were shipped to England in boxes and assembled in London one of them was dropped off a barge into the River Thames and had to be fished out before they could build it the passenger cars were over 45 feet long and weighed 14 tonnes gateman controlled iron grilled gates at each end of the cars allowing passengers to board the railway used direct current for its traction part this electricity was picked up by the locomotive from a third rail positioned in the middle of the two running rails when you want to start an electric motor driving a train if you start it with all the power all at once it will either go into a skid or the motor will blow up because it's up to the power line standstill so you have to apply the power gradually rather the same way as you change up in your gears in the car and the way they do it is they put a grid of resistance in the circuit with the motor and the resistance reduces the amount of current getting into the motorcycle and as you want to accelerate you gradually step out the resistance is one by one a couple amount and if you listen you can hear that happening click click click click as a train accelerates at one station in 1900 London's population was fast approaching 7 million and there was a heavy reliance on the tube to move these millions quickly and efficiently but there was a problem with the locomotives the time taken to uncouple the locomotive when he got to the end of the line and find another one to put on the other end of the train to return to go back was taking up a lot of time and reducing the service so they introduced what was called multiple unit control they achieved this by putting two of the motors at one end of the train and two with the other underneath the passenger cars the resistors and electrical equipment were put into a space above the motors all the driver had to do when he wanted to change ends was to shut down the cab at one end walk down the train get in a cab at the other end and he was ready to go over the next few years there was really a railway mania with many many companies and organizations promoting railways very few of which ever saw the light of day but three did forming part of today is Northern Line like Lou Lyon and Piccadilly line and all three had been given sanctioned by the government to go ahead but all three were running into financial trouble and that's when the American financier Charles Tyson Yerkes came to the rescue Charles Tyson yogi's arrived in London with his wife and several of his mistresses leaving behind in the u.s. a shady reputation questionable business practices in America led to a prison sentence for his misappropriation of government funds Charles Tyson Yerkes is a fascinating character to many people he's the embodiment of the crooked Victorian businessman but I think it's important to remember that of course he merely operated in the business climate of the day he wasn't responsible for the first underground rail but what he brought was basically access to several important things he brought access to America money to develop the very expensive to Braille ways being built in London at the turn of the century and he brought access to American technology particularly in the electrical field by 1902 Yerkes had become the chairman of the newly formed underground electric railways Company of London limited with a capital of four million dollars Yerkes set about buying up the new electric underground lines he also built a large power plant at Lots Road Chelsea which was an ideal location for being supplied with coal along the River Thames he believed that if you supplied your own power you increased your profits the Lots rode power plant which is still clearly visible on the London skyline was built to specifications to that of American power houses it was one of the biggest generating stations in the world it contained eight turbo generators running at a thousand revs per minute developing 65,000 horsepower the opening of Yerkes first tube lines in 1906 and the increasing electrification of his subsurface railways its increasing this felt the death knell of steam locomotives in use on the central area of London Underground progressively they were forced to the suburbs and eventually the entire network was electrically operated when the underground was first electrified it was decided to use a four rail system which is almost unique in the world the positive one is on the outside of the rails and they there's the one in the center which is the negative rail that system was chosen when the insulated returned because even in those early days of electrification it was realized that if the return went through the running rails and through earth it couldn't cause problems with corrosion of water pipes and other metal in the ground including our own tunnel segments Charles Yerkes had achieved his first goal by making an efficient electrically powered railway network the system he set up at the beginning of the century is still very much in place in the modern tube but how to give the entire underground network a uniform identity would be Yerkes next challenge modern styling and improved design were to be the answer by 1905 Charles Tyson Yerkes had achieved his aim of electrifying the three deep level railways beneath London to create a uniform identity for his company he employed a young architect Leslie green to design stations that were distinctive and conspicuous the minute you see one of these stations it says London Underground because it uses the tiles these maroon glazed tiles always the same you also have that all those Edwardian obsessions with kind of an English variant on Art Nouveau you've got craftsmanship and wood and no-expense-spared so these were lavish stations in their time and they've lasted the test of time extraordinarily well the minute you walk into a Leslie green station you know you're on the London Underground they made something like eleven Leslie green stations in two years between 1904 and 1906 which is probably why died a year later they say of exhaustion age 33 but he left behind her an extraordinary heritage for London Yogi's also didn't live to see his tube empire grow he died in December 1905 in New York and the following year he was replaced by another American Albert Stanley Stanley brought even more American influence on to the Underground when he arrived from New Jersey and took over as general manager of the underground electric railways company Albert Stanley had two outstanding achievements firstly he bought the bus companies in London the only mode of transport that made a profit secondly he employed Frank pick as his deputy in 1906 pick became the man responsible for branding and styling on the underground this included rolling stock upholstery lighting architecture and even graphic design the underground when they first opened the new tube lines had the names of the stations simply fired into the tiles at either end of the platform one of the first changes they made so that the station name was distinctive was to have the name printed on er an enamel plate with behind it a a red symbol so that the the lettering is on white on a blue plate with a red disk behind it the circle with a bar across it became a symbol of the underground company and remains its corporate logo even today this logo reinforced the way the three deep level tube lines were seen to be part of the same company it was called the underground the first time in 1908 and the name stuck the newly branded company also modernised its stock as the modern tube continued to take shape to increase the efficiency of the service the underground had to find a way of getting people on and off the trains more quickly they solved the problem by the 1920s by building trains which had sliding doors on the sides and so the doors followed the roof profile so that there was Headroom for people to get on and off and this stop became known as the standard stop because so much of it was built this it was practically standard across all over the Yerkes tubes the underground had a modern identity and modern trains below ground but now it was about to play a major role in the shaping of modern-day London above-ground the underground lines had expanded and in 1908 one line came to the surface just to the north of London in open countryside within the next few years an entire new community Hampstead Garden Suburb developed around the base of the underground station Albert Stanley and his fellow investors realized that there was a great profit to be made in the expansion and development of the London suburbs as did their arch rivals the Metropolitan Railway together the two companies expanded their networks beyond London creating a new suburbia Metropolitan Railway had the smart idea of actually buying up land either side of the railway as it was developed house into the countryside and then later using that land to develop their own housing estates so they got the double benefit of not only the profits from the houses themselves but also the profits from the people who bought those houses then travelling in daily into London the center of London eventually stopped being the place where people lived and worked the rapid growth in desirable suburban housing meant that the city centre was reinventing itself as the place to visit for entertainment and shopping very early on the people who run the London Transport System realized that what they were selling was not a transport system but a city see if you're selling tickets on the tube you don't say come on the tube it's great fun you say go to the theatre it's great fun and go buy two or you say go shopping in the departments thoughts it's great go buy two the underground network had expanded from the center of London and out to the suburbs reaching ever more people but to make a profit it needed even more passengers Frank pick the assistant manager of the underground hit on a radical idea a poster campaign to promote the tube not just as a way of getting to work but for leisure activities by the 1920s and 30s the under dome was producing a really large number of of posters and they had easily fulfilled their function of just publicizing the system and getting people to use the underground and they became much more than that they became a way of actually promoting London so they've sold the West End is the place to shop the place to play the place to drink the place to flirt place to do all of those things consciously posters saying come to the West End it's great go to the theater it's wonderful go to Selfridges and spend your money and buy to Bob ticket that's what they sold and we bought it the marketing and poster campaigns exemplified the forward thinking and innovation of the underground but in the engineering arena older technology was still serving them well the original braking system that was used on London Underground was designed by George Westinghouse of America in the 1870s it consisted basically of compressed air supply which provided you with a constant supply of air and the air was to use in the brake cylinders and the brake cylinders were used push a block against it we want to slow it down dream breaking Don each car a thing called a triple valve and the triple valve recharge the brakes release the brakes and applied the brakes I'd had three functions technical expertise and simplicity were the watchwords of the London Underground a simplicity exemplified by Frank pick and his hand chosen architects in 1923 pick employed Charles Henry Holden to design the stations on the city and South London railway extension Holden went on to create a house style that rationalized the often chaotic layout and provided a much more modern facade still to be seen in many underground stations the design was a very clever one based on simple geometric shapes and using a modern material and concrete for the roofs but using traditional brickwork designs for the main body of the building and creating what now in retrospect is some of the best modern building designs in London and perhaps in the rest of Britain as well but in one key area the underground was far from simple as the network expanded it was becoming increasingly difficult to follow and understand the London Underground map or route planner an alternative was needed and so in 1931 draftsman Harry Beck produced the first diagrammatic map it was a complicated endeavor illustrating the different lines and routes of the underground his solution was radical he redesigned the map as an electrical circuit abandoning geographical truth for the sake of simplicity the central area of the map which contains the most complicated interchanges are enlarged in relation to the outer areas initially London Underground rejected it as a design because it was too revolutionary and because it had no bearing on the real geography they eventually published it in 1933 it was greeted with enthusiasm by the public for being clear and simple to use the diagrammatic map is now a standard means of representing transport systems all over the world by the 1930s control of all the original tube companies was taken over by the newly formed London passenger transport board its role was to oversee the continued expansion of the underground with the population of Greater London approaching 9 million something had to be done to increase the flow of passengers through the system it wasn't feasible to increase the tunnel size for wider trains so in 1935 the cars were redesigned to accommodate more people one of the major problems of all the pre 1935 trains built for London Underground was that you had the switch compartment behind the driver and used up 15 percent of the available passenger space by 1935 they had sufficient design progress to put most of the equipment below the floor motors were smaller the compressors were smaller all the power supply systems are smaller and they produced these prototype trains in 1935 since its opening in 1863 the London Underground has played a vital role in the lives of Londoners but it would be during the dark days of world war ii that the underground really shone through in 1940 Germany unleashed a deadly bombing campaign on Britain the Blitz seventy-nine Tube stations were used as air-raid shelters accommodating thousands of people every night many problems they get there early and so needs something to eat long before bedtime London Transport has established six Depot's where the food is received and prepared for dispatch to the station canteens the trains carried the women of the underground catering service that provided refreshments for the thousands of Londoners who sheltered on the station platforms on countless nights during the war the London Underground had one of the most efficient catering establishments in fact there was a total of over 75 which were catering the farmer looked after and so they took on the job of providing refreshment trains timetables now these refreshment trains run roughly about twice a day once a evening and once before the service started in the morning as well as looking after the needs of the people sheltering in the tube 17,000 women took on jobs in the underground they created a thriving underground world producing the weapons of war in the munitions and armaments factories beneath the city's streets during the Second World War large numbers of women came to be employed by the underground group mostly in place of men of course who had gone off to fight in the armed forces but they took on rolls not just working in stations but also in engineering capacities such as relaying track or working in the underground factories building new rolling stock and repairing trains millions of fatal bomber fighter and tank parts brought out from this underground Arsenal to the Allied forces in all corners of the world the underground was also important for the wartime Prime Minister Winston Churchill the deep tunnels beneath down Street Station became the subterranean headquarters for the War Cabinet this passageway would have been the way out of the station up until 1932 if it had a much more important role during the war years the railway executive committee used this area for their meeting room that's where some of Britain's most important decisions for rail movements troop movements during the war years were taken but it also had another employment use up until 1942 when the War Cabinet rooms were completed Winston Churchill came here and met with some of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and with the War Cabinet here at track level the platform areas were converted for use as a telephone exchange as kitchens as bedrooms and offices and we're standing in was one of the dining rooms there were two dining rooms here and we can tell that this one was one of the executives dining rooms and that was because I had wallpaper on the walls and a bell push to summon the steward what kind of noise must have been present while people were trying to work in an even sleep as trained to a pass in by the sight not more than six feet away from where is standing between August 1940 and July 1941 nearly 40,000 high-explosive bombs and millions of incendiaries fell on London thousands of underground carriages were damaged or destroyed but worse than the damage to the rolling stock and infrastructure of the underground several disasters befell the tube that affected all those people who used the tunnels and platforms as shelter probably one of the worst was at Bank Station she's right in the heart of financial London where a German bomb penetrated the ticket-office roof and slid down the escalator shafts before exploding and it took over 18 months to reconstruct the station from the devastation caused 56 people were killed in this disaster in 1940 south London's balance station was also destroyed by a German bomb which burst a water main drowning 68 people who were sheltering there one of the worst civilian disasters during the Second World War took place that had partially built underground station at Bethnal Green in East London I'm following a false air-raid warning a woman and child tripped halfway down the staircases and in the ensuing crush nearly 200 people were killed this tragedy was so awful the British government kept the details secret for nearly two years after the war the underground required an enormous quantity of new rolling stock to replace the carriages and motorcars that had been destroyed the new trains took to the tracks on the district line in 1953 just as the last of the wooden cars were scrapped from the system they were inspired by wartime technology following the experience with aluminium aircraft construction London Underground used that experience to develop a aluminium car body aluminium was a good material to news because it was 20% lighter than steel he didn't trust and you could also get away with not painting it in fact you could save two tons of paint for a vehicle if you didn't paint it so in 1953 they tried running an unpainted vehicle around the system and it was soon accepted by the public so from that day onwards all London Underground trains were built of unpainted aluminium and only since the mid 1980s when we were hit by the scourge of graffiti did London Underground start having to repaint vehicles as the new aluminium trains came into service London Transport ceased its steam passenger train operation in 1961 after nearly a century the steam locomotives found their way into museum collections and enthusiasts clubs for London Transport the future lay in automatic trains they began experimenting with them on the district line in 1962 on March the 7th 1969 London Underground again to the lead in the world when Her Majesty the Queen officially opened the Victoria Line the first fully automated railway in the world it was a pioneer and the way it worked basically was that the driver would close the doors at the station and press to start buttons and the Train would accelerate and proceed to the next station brake and stop in the right place without the driver touching any other controls each section of line was divided up into blocks few hundred metres long and each block had a signal protecting it on the basis that you never allowed more than one training to anyone look at any one time if you automate it what you have to do is to tell the train whether the blocker head is safe to go into and they do that by transmitting a code through the rails through running rails and this code is picked up by two receivers on the front of the train and those receivers basically tell the train whether it's safe to go and at what speed the Victoria Line with its new age 67 star was the most modern urban railway in the world the busiest section of the line between Victoria Station and Buckingham Palace carries 15,000 passengers during the Russia with the opening of the Victorian level automatic fare collection was introduced to make the Underground more efficient passengers would purchase their tickets through machines instead of a ticket office their tickets were marked with a magnetically encoded strip that could be inserted into an unmanned barrier machine giving them access to the platforms and the trains this was an important time for the underground after relying on the same equipment and stations for the last 50 years they were in dire need of refurbishment so in the early 1980s many of the stations received a complete facelift expansions and renovations took place which gave the central line a completely new look the system runs daily from 4:30 in the morning till midnight when it shuts down for cleaning and daily maintenance the staff who make as possible a rarely seen they are the maintenance gangs who work at night when the track current is switched off some parts of the track are over 100 years old and require constant safety checks every bit of the line is walked every 48 hours to check for faults but the age of the system was to be responsible for the London Underground's most recent tragedy on Wednesday evening November the 18th 1987 a small fire started under an escalator at Kings Cross the fire spread very rapidly up the escalator and right across the ticket hall it's believed to be started by the smoker dropping a match down the side of the treads on the escalator it spread so rapidly that 31 people died in the fire including an officer from the London Fire Brigade and many more was seriously injured London Underground itself did a great many changes immediately after Kings Cross there's a very strong no smoking policy within the whole of London underground after Kings Cross the underground went through a period of safety improvement and modernization this improved Londoners perception of the tomb it was also voted the third most impressive attraction in London by millions of visiting tourists but for 9 million Londoners it is just a way of getting to work the experience of the rush hour is never a pleasant one during the morning and afternoon peak hours two hundred and ten thousand passengers pass through Oxford Circus and 240,000 used Victoria on route to and from work for the 1990 London Underground has introduced three new types of trains on three of the lines 1992 on the central line and 1995 on the northern 1996 on the Jubilee a traction system uses what we call electronic power and the electronic power means that you can control the Train with computers the old direct current motors have been replaced by what we call alternating current motors the reason for using these new motors is that they do not require the mechanical parts of the old DC motors particularly brushes and the extra windings of the armature this reduces the maintenance liability and improves the performance of the motors and that's what's now stand-alone electric railways across the world the tube is a constantly expanding railway network from its opening in 1979 by His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales the Jubilee Line the latest line in London has developed into a modern state-of-the-art railway the Jubilee Line extension has taken 30,000 people six years to build the additional ten miles of tunnels cross the River Thames on four occasions and twelve new stations are now in operation on what is one of the most high-tech and advanced underground railways in the world Architects Foster and partners created the Space Age look of Canary Wharf station with projects such as these there really is a an interaction between the architecture and the engineering of the stations they're very complex building projects Canary Wharf was in a dock that had to be drained and then excavated still further so very much below water level so if you imagine the building being effectively floating in water held down to the to the the gravel levels below every time you build another massive building next to it it causes movement within the overall box so the planning of that and the thinking of that from an architectural point of view and also from an engineering point of view were very complex the Jubilee Line extension employs the latest technology to deliver an efficient and safe railway system safety is paramount and this totally new line can run 56 trains at any one time on the system the trains are all new and are all controlled from their state-of-the-art nerve centre radio links enable the centre to be in contact with every trailer and onboard information systems keeps passengers aware of changing travel details in the future London Underground will bring us bigger and fully automated trains with nearly three million people using the tube every day the system will need to be more efficient I think blunders want an underground system which enables them to travel to more places in more comfort tourists do seem to be to be market bikini Londoners probably because they don't have to use it every day I think more than anything though people want to be able to feel that they can sit in newer rolling stock and I say sit rather than stand they'd like a seat so therefore they'd like more trains coming more quickly I think most people think that London is one thing and the London Underground is another but in fact the two things are intermingled in a way the underground is London it's the only thing holding London together plans now exist for passenger capacity to be increased by making better use of the available tunnel diameter lowering the floor of the carriage and providing more gangway space for standing this concept has been called space train and gaps would be eliminated between cars by using short articulated segments to provide one continuous train instead of individual cars it is hoped that the space train would transport 60,000 passengers per hour along the Victoria Line the underground as we know it is just about 4 there is no such thing as London without the tube obviously 1 million people that came to work this morning only 15% came in cars 85% came by public transport half of them used the underground for part or all of their journey says that you grew that London grew the railway system is what makes London in brief 137 years ago steam trains carried passengers beneath the streets of London on the world's first underground railway electric traction and American financing modernized and expanded the system taking the tube lines deeper beneath the city's streets as London's population has grown and our traffic problems increased the tube has become indispensable for keeping the city moving it is now recognized across the world as a symbol of London itself the future promises faster larger trains and line extensions it may be the youngest underground system in the world but the London Underground is ready to provide the city with all her transport needs beyond a 21st century

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